Research methodologies

Social science resources

Policy alternatives

Conflict futures

Study centers online

Indonesian research centers

Print, media resources




Bibliography of Ethnicity in Southeast Asia

by Michel Picard (LASEMA-CNRS) and Yves Goudineau (IRD/Ecole Française d'Extrême-Orient)




ABOU, S. -1981- L'identité culturelle. Relations interethniques et problèmes d’acculturation. Paris: Anthropos.

BALIBAR, E. & I. WALLERSTEIN -1988- Race, nation, classe. Les identités ambigües. Paris: La Découverte.

BANKS, M. -1996- Anthropological Constructions of Ethnicity: An Introductory Guide. London: Routledge.

BARTH, F. -1969- Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. The Social Organization of Culture Difference. London: Allen & Unwin.

BAUMANN,G. & Th.SUNIER, eds. -1995- Post-migration Ethnicity. De-essentializing Cohesion, Commitments and Comparison. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis Publishers.

BENTLEY,G.C. -1983- Theoretical perspectives on ethnicity and nationality: Part 1, Sage Race Relations Abstract 8/2: 1-53.

van den BERGHE,P.L. -1981- The Ethnic Phenomenon. New York: Elsevier.

BOUCHER, J., D. LANDIS & K.A. CLARK, eds. -1987- Ethnic Conflict: International Perspectives. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

BRETON,R. -1981- Les ethnies. Paris: PUF, Que sais-je?

CAMILLERI,C. & M.COHEN-EMERIQUE (eds.) -1989- Chocs de cultures. Concepts et enjeux pratiques de l'interculturel. Paris: L'Harmattan.

CHRÉTIEN, J.P. & G. PRUNIER, dir. -1989- Les ethnies ont une histoire. Paris: Karthala.

COHEN,A. (ed.) -1974- Urban Ethnicity. London: Tavistock.

DAVID,K. & S.KADIRGAMAR (eds.) -1989- Ethnicity: Identity, Conflict, Crisis. Hong Kong: Arena Press.

FOURIER,M. & G.VERMES -1994- Ethnicisation des rapports sociaux. Racismes, nationalismes, ethnicismes et culturalismes. Paris: L'Harmattan.

GALLISSOT, R., M. KILANI & A. RIVERA -2000- L'imbroglio ethnique en quatorze mots clés. Lausanne: Payot.

GLAZER,N. & D.MOYNIHAN (eds.) -1975- Ethnicity: Theory and Experience. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

HOROWITZ,D. -1985- Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.

JENKINS, R. -1997- Rethinking Ethnicity. Arguments and Explorations. London: Sage.

KEYES,C.F. (ed.) -1981- Ethnic Change. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

MARTINIELLO, M. -1995- L'ethnicité dans les sciences sociales contemporaines. Paris: PUF, Que sais-je?

McCREADY,W.C. (ed.) -1983- Culture, Ethnicity, and Identity: Current Issues in Research. New York: Academic Press.

POUTIGNAT, Ph. & J. STREIFF-FENART -1995- Théories de l'ethnicité. Paris: PUF.

ROOSENS,E.E. -1989- Creating Ethnicity. London: Sage.

SMITH,A.D. -1981- The Ethnic Revival in the Modern World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

SOLLORS,W. (ed.) -1989- The Invention of Ethnicity. New York: Oxford University Press.

TODOROV,T. (ed.) -1986- Le croisement des cultures, Communications 43.

VERMEULEN, H. & C. GOVERS, eds. -1994- The Anthropology of Ethnicity. Beyond "Ethnic Groups and Boundaries". Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.

VERMEULEN, H. & C.GOVERS, eds. -1997-  The Politics of Ethnic Consciousness. London: Macmillan.


AMSELLE,J.L. -1989- "Ethnie", in Encyclopaedia Universalis. Paris.

BABINSKI,G. -1985- Methodological problems of studies of cultural differences of ethnic groups in pluralistic societies, Ethnic Forum 5/1-2: 36-51.

COHEN, R. -1978- Ethnicity: Problem and focus in anthropology, Annual Review of Anthropology 7: 379-404.

DORMAN, J.H. -1980- Ethnic groups and 'ethnicity': Some theoretical considerations, Journal of Ethnic Studies 7/4: 23-36.

FORMOSO, B. -2001- L’ethnie en question, débats sur l’identité, in Ethnologie. Concepts et aires culturelles, sous la direction de M. Segalen, pp. 15-30. Paris: Armand Colin.

HALL,S. -1991- The local and the global: globalisation and ethnicity, in A.D.King, ed., Culture, Globalisation and the World-System, pp.19-39. London: Macmillan.

JENKINS,R. -1986- Social anthropological models of inter-ethnic relations, in Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations, ed. by J.Rex & D.Mason, pp.170-186. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

KAHN, J.S. -1981- Explaining ethnicity: A review article, Critique of Anthropology 4/16: 43-52.

McKAY, J. -1982- An exploratory synthesis of primordial and mobilizationist approaches to ethnic phenomena, Ethnic and Racial Studies 5/4: 395-420.

MORRIS,H.S. -1968- "Ethnic Groups", in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. by D.L.Sills, Vol.5, pp.167-172. New York: Macmillan

MUGA,D. -1984- Academic sub-cultural theory and the problematic of ethnicity: A tentative critique, The Journal of Ethnic Studies 12/1: 1-51.

NAGEL,J. -1994- Constructing ethnicity: Creating and recreating ethnic identity and culture, Social Problems 41/1: 152-176.

OKAMURA,  J.Y. -1981- Situational ethnicity, Ethnic and Racial Studies 4/4: 452-465.

SCOTT,G.M.Jr. -1990- A resynthesis of the primordial and circumstantial approaches to ethnic group solidarity: towards an explanatory model, Ethnic and Racial Studies 13/2: 147-171.

SMOLICZ,J.J. -1983- Cultural alternatives in plural societies: Separatism or multiculturalism, Journal of Intercultural Studies 4/3: 47-68.

SMOOHA,S. -1985- "Ethnic relations", in The Social Science Encyclopedia, ed. by A.Kuper & J.Kuper, pp.269-272. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

TAYLOR, A.C. -1991- Ethnie, in Dictionnaire de l'ethnologie et de l'anthropologie, sous la direction de P.Bonte & M.Izard, pp. 242-244. Paris: PUF.

WILLIAMS,P. -1991- Ethnies minoritaires: Problèmes anthropologiques, in Dictionnaire de l'ethnologie et de l'anthropologie, sous la direction de P.Bonte & M.Izard, pp. 244-246. Paris: PUF.

YINGER,J .M. -1985- Ethnicity, Annual Review of Sociology 11: 151-180.


            Ethnicity and nationalism

ANDERSON, B. -1991- Imagined Communities. London & New York: Verso (1983).

BRASS, P. -1991- Ethnicity and Nationalism. Theory and Comparison. London: Sage.

ERIKSEN, T.H. -1993- Ethnicity and Nationalism. Anthropological Perspectives. London & Boulder: Pluto Press.

GUIDIERI,R., F.PELLIZZI & S.TAMBIAH (eds.) -1988- Ethnicities and Nations: Processes of Interethnic Relations in Latin America, Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Austin: University of Texas Press.

McNEIL,W.H. -1987- Polyethnicity and National Unity in World History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

SMITH, A.D. -1986- The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

SMITH, A.D., ed. -1992- Ethnicity and Nationalism. Leiden: Brill.

TOLAND, J.D., ed. -1993- Ethnicity and the State. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

WILMSEN, E.N. & P. McALLISTER, eds. -1996- The Politics of Difference. Ethnic Premises in a World of Power. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


NORTON,R. -1984- Ethnicity and class: A conceptual note with reference to the politics of post-colonial societies, Ethnic and Racial Studies 7/3: 426-434.

REX,J. -1977- Introduction: New nations and ethnic minorities, Comparative and theoretical questions, in Race and Class in Post-colonial Society, pp.11-52. Paris: Unesco.

SMITH,A.D. -1988- The myth of the "modern nation" and the myth of nations, Ethnic and Racial Studies 11/1: 1-26.

WILLIAMS,C. -1982- Social mobilization and nationalism in multicultural societies, Ethnic and Racial Studies 5/3: 349-365.

ZUBAIDA,S. -1989- Nations: old and new: Comments on Anthony D.Smith's 'The myth of the "modern nations" and the myth of nations', Ethnic and Racial Studies 12/3: 329-339.


            Ethnicity and religion

ACKERMAN, S. & R. LEE -1990- Heaven in Transition. Non-Muslim Religious Innovation and Ethnic Identity in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Forum.

AYABE, T., ed. -1998- Nation-State, Identity and Religion in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Singapore Society of Asian Studies.

BEATTY, A. -1999- Varieties of Javanese Religion: An anthropological account. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

HEFNER, R. -1985- Hindu Javanese. Tengger Tradition and Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

KIPP, R. & S. RODGERS, eds. -1987- Indonesian Religions in Transition. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

LEE, R. & S. ACKERMAN -1997- Sacred Tensions. Modernity and Religious Transformation in Malaysia. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

VIGNATO, S. -2000- Au nom de l'hindouisme. Reconfigurations ethniques chez les Tamouls et les Karo en Indonésie. Paris: L'Harmattan.


SCHILLER, A.L. -1997- Religion and identity in Central Kalimantan: the case of the Ngaju Dayak, in Indigenous Peoples and the State. Politics, Land, and Ethnicity in the Malaysian Peninsula and Borneo, ed. R.L.Winzeler, p.180-200. New Haven: Yale University SEA Studies.

TOOKER, D. -1992- Identity systems of Highland Burma: 'Belief', Akha zang, and a critique of interiorized notions of ethno-religious identity, Man 27/4: 799-819.


Ethnicity and tourism

HITCHCOCK, M., V.T. KING & M.J.G. PARNWELL, eds. -1993- Tourism in South-East Asia. London: Routledge.

KEYES, C.F. and P. Van den BERGHE,  eds. -1984- "Tourism and Ethnicity", Special issue of Annals of Tourism Research 11/3.

LANFANT, M.F., J.B. ALLCOCK & E.M. BRUNER, eds. -1995- International Tourism. Identity and Change. London: Sage.

PICARD, M. & R. WOOD, eds. -1997- Tourism, Ethnicity, and the State in Asian and Pacific Societies. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

YAMASHITA, S., K.H. DIN & J.S. EADES, eds. -1997- Tourism and Cultural Development in Asia and Oceania. Bangi: Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.


ADAMS, K.M. -1995- Making up the Toraja? The appropriation of tourism, anthropology and museums for politics in upland Sulawesi (Indonesia), Ethnology 34/2: 143-153.

ADAMS, K.M. -1997- Ethnic tourism and the renegociation of tradition in Tana Toraja (Sulawesi, Indonesia), Ethnology 36/4: 309-320.

ADAMS, K.M. -1998- More than an ethnic marker: Toraja art as identity negotiator, American Ethnologist 25/3: 327-351.

ADAMS, K.M. -1998- Domestic tourism and nation-building in South Sulawesi, Indonesia and the Malay World 26/75: 77-90.

ERRINGTON, F. & D. GEWERTZ -1989- Tourism and Anthropology in a Post-Modern World, Oceania 60/1: 37-54.

LEONG, W.T. -1989- Culture and the State: Manufacturing Traditions for Tourism, Critical Studies in Mass Communications 6: 355-375.

VOLKMAN, T.A. -1984- Great Performances: Toraja Cultural Identity in the 1970s, American Ethnologist 11/1: 152-169.

VOLKMAN, T.A. -1990- Visions and Revisions: Toraja Culture and the Tourist Gaze, American Ethnologist 17/1: 91-110.

WOOD, R.E. -1998- Touristic ethnicity: a brief itinerary, Ethnic and Racial Studies 21/2: 218-241.


            Southeast Asia

BANKS, D.J. -1976- Changing Identities in Modern Southeast Asia. The Hague: Mouton.

Brown, D. -1994- The State and Ethnic Politics in Southeast Asia. London: Routledge.

CONDOMINAS, G. -1980- L’espace social. A propos de l’Asie du Sud-Est. Paris: Flammarion.

CULTURAL SURVIVAL -1987- Southeast Asian Tribal Groups and Ethnic Minorities. Cambridge: Cultural Survival Report.

DIKKOTËR, F. -1992- The Discourse of Race in Modern China, London: Hurst.

ENGELBERT,T. & A.SCHNEIDER, eds. -2000- Ethnic Minorities and Nationalism in South-East Asia. Festschrift, dedicated to Hans-Dieter Kubitscheck. Frankfurt, Berlin, Bern: Peter Lang.

EVANS, G., ed. –2000- Laos : Culture and Society. Chiang Mai: Silkworms Books.

KAHN,J.S., ed. -1998- Southeast Asian Identities. London: Tauris.

KEYES, Ch.F., ed. -1979- Ethnic Adaptation and Identity : The Karen on the Thai Frontier with Burma. Philadelphia: ISHI.

KING, V.T. & W. WILDER, eds. -1982- "Ethnicity in Southeast Asia", Special issue of the Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science 10/1.

KUNSTADTER, P. -1967- Southeast Asian Tribes, Minorities and Nations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

McKINNON, J. & W. BHRUKSASRI, eds. -1983- Highlanders of Thailand. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

MICHAUD, J., ed. -2000- Turbulent Times and Enduring Peoples. Mountain Minorities in the South-East Asian Massif. Richmond: Curzon.

RAMBO,A.T., K.GOLLOGLY & K.L.HUTTERER (eds.) -1988- Ethnic Diversity and the Control of National Resources in Southeast Asia. Michigan Papers on South and Southeast Asia, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies n_32. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

REYNOLDS, C.J. ed. -1991- National Identity and its Defenders : Thailand 1939-1989. Victoria: Monash University.

THONGCHAI, W. -1994- Siam Mapped : A History of a Geo-Body of a Nation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

TURTON, A. -2000- Civility and Savagery. Social Identity in Tai States. Richmond: Curzon.

WIJEYEWARDENE, G., ed. -1990- Ethnic Groups across National Boundaries in Mainland Southeast Asia. Singapore: ISEAS.


ANDAYA, L.Y. -1997- Ethnonation, nation-state and regionalism in Southeast Asia, in Proceedings of the International Symposium Southeast Asia: Global Area Studies for the 21st Century, p.131-149. Kyoto: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University.

BANKS, D.J. -1980- Politics and ethnicity on the Thai-Malay Frontier, Kabar Seberang Sulating Maphilindo 7 : 98-113.

BROWN,D. -1988- From peripheral communities to ethnic nations: Separatism in Southeast Asia, Pacific Affairs 61/1: 51-77.

BROWN,D. -1989- The state of ethnicity and the ethnicity of the state. Ethnic politics in Southeast Asia, Ethnic and Racial Studies 12/1: 47-62.

CHAN,H.C. & H.D.EVERS -1973- Nation-building and national identity in Southeast Asia, in Building States and Nations: Analysis by Region, vol.2, ed. by S.N.Eisenstadt & S.Rokkan, pp.301-319. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

EVANS, G. -1992- Internal colonialism in the Central Highlands of Vietnam , Sojourn, August.

FALL, B. -1962- Problèmes des Etats poly-ethniques en Indochine, France-Asie XVIII/172.

GOUDINEAU, Y. -2000- Ethnicité et déterritorialisation dans la péninsule indochinoise : considérations à partir du Laos, Autrepart 14 : 17-31.

IRESON, C. & R. -1991- Ethnicity and developement in Laos, Asian Survey XXXI/10.

LEACH, E.R. -1960- The frontiers of Burma, Comparative Studies in Society and History 3/1: : 49-68.

LEE,Y.L. 1983- Ethnic differences and the state-minority relationship in Southeast Asia, Ethnic and Racial Studies 6/2: 213-220.

LEHMAN, F. -1967- Burma : Kayah society as a function of the Shan-Burma-Karen Context, in J Steward, ed., Contemporary Change in Traditional Society, III. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

MOERMAN, M. -1965- Ethnic identification in a complex civilization : who are the Lue ?, American Anthropologist 67: 1215-1230.

REID, A. -1998- National and ethnic identities in a democratic age: some thoughts of  a Southeast Asian historian, in Oh Myung-Seok & Kim Huung-Jun, eds., Religion, Ethnicity and Modernity in Southeast Asia, pp.11-43. Seoul: Seoul National University Press.



GEERTZ,H. -1963- Indonesian Cultures and Communities. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files Press.

HENLEY, D. -1996- Nationalism and Regionalism in a Colonial Context. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Kahn, J. -1993- Constituting the Minangkabau. Peasants, Culture, and modernity in Indonesia. Oxford: Berg.

KIPP, R.S. -1993- Dissociated Identities. Ethnicity, Religion, and Class in an Indonesian Society. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

PERRET, D. -1995- La formation d'un paysage ethnique. Batak & Malais de Sumatra Nord-Est. Paris: EFEO.

ROUSSEAU,J. -1989- Central Borneo: Ethnic Identity and social Life in a Stratified Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

SKINNER,G.W. (ed.) -1959- Local, Ethnic, and National Loyalties in Village Indonesia. A Symposium. Cultural Report Series, Southeast Asian Studies n_8. New Haven: Yale University Press.


BROCH,H.B. -1987- Ethnic differentiation and integration: Aspects of inter-ethnic relations at the village level on Bonerate, Ethnic Groups 7/1: 19-37.

BRUNER,E.M. -1961- Urbanization and ethnic identity in North Sumatra, American Anthropologist 63: 508-521.

BRUNER,E.M. -1972- Batak ethnic associations in three Indonesian cities, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 28/3: 207-229.

BRUNER,E.M. -1973- The missing tins of chicken: A symbolic interactionist approach to culture change, Ethos 1/2: 219-238.

BRUNER,E.M. -1974- The expression of ethnicity in Indonesia, in A.Cohen ed., Urban Ethnicity, pp.251-280. London. Tavistock.

CHLENOV,M.A. -1980- Cultural vocabulary as an indicator of interethnic relations: Eastern Indonesian evidence, BKI 136/4: 426-439.

COLCHESTER, M. -1986- Unity and Diversity. Indonesian policy towards tribal people, The Ecologist 16/2-3: 89-98.

van DIJK, K. -1990- The Indonesian state: unity in diversity, in The Post-colonial State in Asia: Dialectics of Politics and Culture, ed. Subrata Kumar Mitra, pp.101-129. New York: Harvester.

ELLEN,R.F. -1988- Ritual, identity and the management of interethnic relations on Seram, in D.S.Moyer & H.J.M.Claessen eds. Time past, time present, time future: essays in honour of P.E. de Josselin de Jong. Dordrecht: Foris.

FOULCHER, K. -1990- The Construction of an Indonesian National Culture: Patterns of Hegemony and Resistance, in State and Civil Society in Indonesia, ed. A.Budiman, pp.301-320. Clayton: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University.

GALIZIA,M. -1988- State and ethnic identity: Among the Rejang in Southwest Sumatra, Prisma 46: 57-69.

GREGORY,A. -1978- The influence of ethnicity in the evolution of the Indonesian military elite, in Ethnicity and the Military in Asia, ed. by DeWitt C.Ellinwood & C.H.Enloe. Special isue of the Journal of Asian Affairs 3/2: 140-156.

GUINNESS, P. -1994- Local society and culture, in Indonesia’s New Order, ed. H. Hill, pp. 267-304. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin.

HEFNER, R.W. -1991- State, nation, and ethnicity in modern Indonesia, in State and Nation in Multi-Ethnic Societies. The Breakup of Multinational States, eds. U.Ra'anan, M.Mesner, K.Armes & K.Martin, pp.198-220. Manchester: Manchester  University Press.

HENLEY, D. -1995- Regional nationalism in a colonial state: a case study from the Dutch East Indies, Political Geography 14/1: 31-58.

HENLEY, D. -1995- Ethnogeographic integration and exclusion in anticolonial nationalism: Indonesia and Indochina, Comparative Studies of Society and History 37/2: 286-324.

JASPARS,J.M.F. & WARNAEN,S. -1982- Intergroup relations, ethnic identity and self-evaluation in Indonesia, in Social Identity and Intergroup Relations, ed. by H.Tajfel, pp.335-366. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (psychologie sociale, Musée de l'Homme).

LIDDLE,R.W. -1972- Ethnicity and political organization: Three East Sumatran cases, in Culture and Politics in Indonesia, ed. by C.Holt, pp.126-178. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

LIDDLE, R.W. -1997- Coercion, Co-optation, and the Management of Ethnic Relations in Indonesia, in Government Policies and Ethnic Relations in Asia and the Pacific, M.E.Brown & S.Ganguly, eds., pp.273-319. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

MAGENDA, B.D. -1988- Ethnicity and State-Building in Indonesia: the Cultural Base of the New Order, in Ethnicity and Nations. Processes of Interethnic Relations in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific, eds. R. Guidieri, F. Pellizi & S.J. Tambiah, pp.345-361. Austin: Rothko Chapel.

NABABAN,P.W.J. -1985- Bilingualism in Indonesia: Ethnic language maintenance and the spread of the national language, in Sociolinguistics in Southeast Asia, ed. by E.C.Y.Kuo, pp.1-18. Special issue of the Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science 13/1.

PELRAS, Ch. -1977- Culture, ethnie, espace social: quelques réflexions autour du cas Bugis, Asie du Sud-Est et Monde Insulidien 8/2: 57-79.

ROBINSON,K. -1986- Stepchildren in their own land: Class and identity in an Indonesian corporate town, Mankind 16/2: 85-98.

ROBINSON, K. -1997- History, houses and regional identities, The Australian Journal of Anthropology 8/1: 71-88.

RODGERS, S. -1987- City Newspapers in the Creation of a Batak Political Heritage, in Cultures and Societies of North Sumatra, ed R.Carle, pp.189-220. Berlin: Dietrich Reiner Verlag.

RODGERS, S. -1991- The ethnic culture page in Medan journalism, Indonesia 51: 83-103.

RODGERS, S. -1993- Batak Heritage and the Indonesian State: Print Literacy and the Construction of Ethnic Cultures in Indonesia, in Ethnicity and the State, ed J.D.Toland, pp.147-76. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

SANDRA, J. -1998- From "You Toradja" to "We Toraya": ethnicity in the making, Explorations in Southeast Asian Studies 2/2: 42-63.

SELLATO, B. -1990- Indonesia Goes Ethnic. Provincial Culture, Image, and Identity: Current Trends in Kalimantan, paper presented to the conference on Centres and Peripheries in Insular Southeast Asia, CNRS-DEVI, Paris.

SHARMA,C.L. -1988- Ethnicity, national integration, and education in Indonesia, Southeast Asian Journal of Educational Studies 25: 47-60.

SURYADINATA,L. -1988- Government policy and national integration in Indonesia, Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science 16/2: 111-131.

WATSON, C.W. -1996- Anthropology and the contemporary construction of ethnicity in Indonesia and Britain, in Grasping the Changing World. Anthropological Concepts in the Postmodern Era, ed. V.Hubinger, pp.100-124. London: Routledge.



LEE,R.L.M. (ed.) -1986- Ethnicity and Ethnic Relations in Malaysia. Monograph Series on Southeast Asia, Occasional Paper n_12. De Kalb: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University.

MILNER, A. -1994- The Invention of Politics in Colonial Malaya. Contesting Nationalism and the Expansion of the Public Sphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

NAGATA,J.A. -1980- Malaysian Mosaic: Perspectives from a Polyethnic Society. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.


BABCOCK,T.G. -1974- Indigenous ethnicity in Sarawak, Sarawak Museum Journal 22/43: 191-202.

KAHN,J.S. -1988-89- Constructing Malaysian ethnicity: A view from Australia, Ilmu Masyarakat 14: 6-8.

KEDIT,P.M. -1989- Ethnicity in a multi-cultural society: Dayak ethnicity in the context of Malaysian multi-cultural society, The Sarawak Museum Journal 40/61: 1-7.

KING,V.T. & M.J.G.PARNWELL (eds.) -1990- Margins and Minorities: The peripheral areas and peoples of Malaysia. Hull: University of Hull Press.

LEE, R.L.M. -1990- The state, religious nationalism, and ethnic nationalization in Malaysia, Ethnic and Racial Studies 13/4: 482-502.

MEANS, G.P. -1987- The politics of ethnicity in Malaysia, Current History 86/519: 168-171, 182.

NAGATA, J.A. -1974- What is a Malay? Situational selection of ethnic identity in a plural society, American Ethnologist 1/2: 331-350.

NAGATA, J.A. -1981- In defence of ethnic boundaries: The changing myths and charters of Malay identity, in C.Keyes ed., Ethnic Change, pp.88-116. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

SARAVANAMUTTU,J. & MAZNAH MOHAMAD -1989- Deconstructing a construction of Malay ethnicity from Australia: A view from Malaysia, Ilmu Masyarakat 15: 92-93.

SINAGA,H. -1989- Ethnicity in a multi-cultural society: A Sarawak showcase, The Sarawak Museum Journal 40/61: 9-20.

WINZELER, R.L. -1997- Modern Bidayuh ethinicity and the politics of culture in Sarawak, in Indigenous Peoples and the State. Politics, Land, and Ethnicity in the Malaysian Peninsula and Borneo, ed. R.L.Winzeler. New Haven: Yale University SEA Studies.



CHEW,S.F. -1987- Ethnicity and Nationality in Singapore. Ohio University Monographs in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series n_78. Athens: Ohio University.

CHIEW,S.K. -1983- Ethnicity and national integration: The evolution of a multiethnic society, in Singapore: Development Policies and Trends, ed. by P.S.J.Chen, pp.29-64. London: Oxford University Press.

CHIEW,S.K. -1990- National identity, ethnicity and national issues, in In Search of Singapore's National Values, ed. by S.T.Quah, pp.66-79. Singapore: Times Academic Press.

CLAMMER,J. -1982- The institutionalization of ethnicity: The culture of ethnicity in Singapore, Ethnic and Racial Studies 5/2: 127-139.

WU,D.Y.H. -1982- Ethnic relations and ethnicity in a city-state Singapore, in D.Wu (ed.), Ethnicity and interpersonal interaction: A cross-cultural study (13-36). Singapore: Maruz (?) Asia.



CASINO,E.S. -1987- Interethnic conflict in the Philippine archipelago, in Ethnic Conflict: International Perspectives, ed. by J.Boucher, D.Landis & K.A.Clark, pp.231-254. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.

GRIFFIN,P.B. -1988- National policy on minority cultural communities: The Philippine case, Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science 16/2: 5-16.

MAJUL,C.A. -1972- Cultural diversity, national integration and national identity in the Philippines, in Development in Southeast Asia: Issues and Dilemmas, ed. by S.S.Hsueh, pp.152-174. Hong Kong: Southeast Asian Social Science Association.

OKAMURA,J.Y. -1988- The policies of neglect: Philippine ethnic minority policy, Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science 16/2: 17-46.



BENTLEY,G.C. -1982- Ethnicity and Nationality: A Bibliography Guide. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

BENTLEY,G.C. -1983- Theoretical perspectives on ethnicity and nationality, Part 2: Bibliography, Sage Race Relations Abstracts 8/3: 1-26.

OGDEN,M.R. & D.Y.H.WU -1985- National Policy and Minority Cultures in Asia and the Pacific: A Partially Annotated Bibliography. Honolulu: Institute of Culture and Communication, East-West Center.

TAN CHEE-BENG -1992- Bibliography on Ethnic Relations with Special Reference to Malaysia and Singapore. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Advanced Studies, University of Malaya.